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Medicinal Mushroom Research

Medicinal mushrooms, also known as adaptogenic mushrooms or functional mushrooms, are adaptogen- and antioxidant-packed foods that have been used in functional medicine for thousands of years. Today, there is plenty of research and documented medicinal benefits to including them in your daily routine. 

Reishi mushroom next to spoon with powder.

At Peak State, we are committed to transparency and helping you make the best possible choices for your health. So, below is a non-exhaustive list of the uses and benefits of the medicinal mushrooms found in our coffee products, with links and references to the studies behind these claims so you can find out more.


Benefits of Adaptogens & Antioxidants:

Adaptogens and antioxidants help your body fight free radicals – or, in simpler terms, stress-related health issues. If you want to learn more about functional mushrooms in general, and about how adaptogens and antioxidants work in your body, click here.


Note About Functional Mushrooms:

Functional mushrooms are not intended to replace modern medicine or treat any specific condition. The adaptogens and antioxidants in medicinal mushrooms support your overall health in a proactive, pre-emptive way. They may alleviate or support medical treatment of certain conditions, however such decisions should be made in conversation with a health professional. If you take prescribed medicine, are pregnant, or have a health condition, you should always consult your doctor before trying products containing functional mushrooms.


Lion’s Mane (Hericium erinaceus):

Lion’s Mane is primarily known for its anti-inflammatory properties, which may offer support for people with conditions such as autoimmune diseases, diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also known for its beneficial impact on brain health.

 Lion's Mane Mushroom.

  • A study in mice found that Lion’s Mane contain proteins that promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, helping to regulate the gut microbiota. This may help strengthen the immune system and reduce inflammation.

    Diling C, Chaoqun Z, Jian Y, Jian L, Jiyan S, Yizhen X, Guoxiao L. Immunomodulatory Activities of a Fungal Protein Extracted from Hericium erinaceus through Regulating the Gut Microbiota. Front Immunol. 2017 Jun 12;8:666.

  • Animal study suggests that Lion’s Mane may increase immunomodulating activity in the body, which can boost the intestinal immune system.

    Sheng X, Yan J, Meng Y, Kang Y, Han Z, Tai G, Zhou Y, Cheng H. Immunomodulatory effects of Hericium erinaceus derived polysaccharides are mediated by intestinal immunology. Food Funct. 2017 Mar 22;8(3):1020-1027. 
      • A study in mice with diabetes showed that after 4 weeks of eating Lion’s Mane extracts, blood sugar levels were lower, suggesting Lion’s Mane could help regulate diabetes by maintaining blood sugar levels.

        Liang B, Guo Z, Xie F, Zhao A. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Oct 3;13:253. 

        • A study in which rats were given Lion’s Mane extracts for 6 weeks to manage diabetes symptoms evidenced lower blood sugar levels, less nerve pain and higher antioxidant activity.

          Yi Z, Shao-Long Y, Ai-Hong W, Zhi-Chun S, Ya-Fen Z, Ye-Ting X, Yu-Ling H. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:595480. 

          • Several animal studies found that Lion’s Mane may help reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, which may help manage or lower risk of connected diseases such as liver damage, inflammatory bowel disease and strokes.

            Lee KF, Chen JH, Teng CC, Shen CH, Hsieh MC, Lu CC, Lee KC, Lee LY, Chen WP, Chen CC, Huang WS, Kuo HC. Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Aug 27;15(9):15073-89. 

            Qin M, Geng Y, Lu Z, Xu H, Shi JS, Xu X, Xu ZH. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), in Mice with Ulcerative Colitis. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016;18(3):227-34.

            Han ZH, Ye JM, Wang GF. Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013 Jan;52:66-71. 

            Hao L, Xie Y, Wu G, Cheng A, Liu X, Zheng R, Huo H, Zhang J. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:418023. 
            • Two studies in mice found that anti-inflammatory compounds in Lion’s Mane extract helped reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression.

              Yao W, Zhang JC, Dong C, Zhuang C, Hirota S, Inanaga K, Hashimoto K. Effects of amycenone on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Sep;136:7-12. 

              Chiu CH, Chyau CC, Chen CC, Lee LY, Chen WP, Liu JL, Lin WH, Mong MC. Erinacine A-Enriched Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects through Modulating BDNF/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling in Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jan 24;19(2):341. 

              • A human study where 30 females were randomly assigned to a placebo and a Lion’s Mane (HE) group, and ingested placebo cookies vs HE cookies for 4 weeks. The study measured the effects of menopause, depression, sleep quality and indefinite complaints through 4 recognized scales and indexes.

                Results show that the HE group had better results than the placebo group, with lower scores on factors such as ‘irritation’, ‘anxious’ and more.

                Nagano M, Shimizu K, Kondo R, Hayashi C, Sato D, Kitagawa K, Ohnuki K. Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomed Res. 2010 Aug;31(4):231-7. 

                • Animal studies show that Lion’s Mane extracts can help regenerate brain cells in the hippocampus, which is where memories and emotional responses are processed. It may also improve its functioning, which could explain the anti-depressant effect from Lion’s Mane in these studies.

                  Ryu S, Kim HG, Kim JY, Kim SY, Cho KO. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain. J Med Food. 2018 Feb;21(2):174-180. 

                  Brandalise F, Cesaroni V, Gregori A, Repetti M, Romano C, Orrù G, Botta L, Girometta C, Guglielminetti ML, Savino E, Rossi P. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:3864340. 
                  • Intoxicated mice were able to better overcome induced neurological dysfunction when taking lion’s mane vs. a placebo group, demonstrating its suggestive neuroprotective benefits against neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

                    Zhang J, An S, Hu W, Teng M, Wang X, Qu Y, Liu Y, Yuan Y, Wang D. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Nov 1;17(11):1810. 

                    Juen-Haur Hwang, Chin-Chu Chen, Li-Ya Lee, Hung-Te Chiang, Ming-Fu Wang, Yin-Ching Chan. Hericium erinaceus enhances neurotrophic factors and prevents cochlear cell apoptosis in senescence accelerated mice, Journal of Functional Foods, Vol. 66, 2020, 103832, ISSN 1756-4646. 

                  • Lion’s mane increases synthesis of the Nerve Growth Factor in vitro and in vivo, which helps neurons regenerate and repair.

                    Lai PL, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V, Wong KH, David RP, Kuppusamy UR, Abdullah N, Malek SN. Neurotrophic properties of the Lion's mane medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2013;15(6):539-54. 

                    • Patients with MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment) took 3 grams of Lion's Mane per day over 16 weeks. During the study, the patients significantly improved their performances on cognitive tests. After the 16 weeks were over and consumption of Lion’s Mane ceased, cognitive performance declined again, providing proof of increased cognitive function as a result of Lion’s Mane consumption, as well as implying the need for continued supplementation.

                      Mori K, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, Azumi Y, Tuchida T. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):367-72. 

                    • Multiple studies in mice have found Lion’s Mane extracts to reduce memory loss as well as prevent neuronal damage connected to Alzheimer’s Disease.

                      Mori K, Obara Y, Moriya T, Inatomi S, Nakahata N. Effects of Hericium erinaceus on amyloid β(25-35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. Biomed Res. 2011 Feb;32(1):67-72.

                      Tsai-Teng T, Chin-Chu C, Li-Ya L, Wan-Ping C, Chung-Kuang L, Chien-Chang S, Chi-Ying HF, Chien-Chih C, Shiao YJ. Erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer's disease-related pathologies in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. J Biomed Sci. 2016 Jun 27;23(1):49. 

                      Zhang J, An S, Hu W, Teng M, Wang X, Qu Y, Liu Y, Yuan Y, Wang D. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Nov 1;17(11):1810. 

                      Cheng JH, Tsai CL, Lien YY, Lee MS, Sheu SC. High molecular weight of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Jun 7;16:170. 


                    Reishi (Ganoderma lingzhi):

                    Reishi is a functional mushroom most well-known for its immune-boosting properties and its calming, anti-stress effects. It may also help fight cancer, among other things.

                    Reishi mushroom.

                    • Reishi may strengthen the immune system through its beneficial impact on white blood cells, a critical part of the immune system. It has been found to alter inflammation pathways in white blood-cells, as well as increasing the activity of natural killer cells, a type of white blood cell that help fight infections and certain cancers.

                      Cheng CH, Leung AY, Chen CF. The effects of two different ganoderma species (Lingzhi) on gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(5):648-58. 

                      Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, Huang M, Dai X. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest. 2003 Aug;32(3):201-15. 

                      Mandal A, Viswanathan C. Natural killer cells: In health and disease. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2015 Jun;8(2):47-55. 

                    • Multiple studies have found that the polysaccharides in Reishi could aid immune modulation both in vivo and in vitro, and thus support and strengthen the immune system in various ways.

                      Lin ZB. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Oct;99(2):144-53. 
                    • In multiple test-tube studies, reishi has led to the death of cancer cells.

                      Liu YW, Gao JL, Guan J, Qian ZM, Feng K, Li SP. Evaluation of antiproliferative activities and action mechanisms of extracts from two species of Ganoderma on tumor cell lines. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Apr 22;57(8):3087-93. 

                      Min BS, Gao JJ, Nakamura N, Hattori M. Triterpenes from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against meth-A and LLC tumor cells. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000 Jul;48(7):1026-33. 

                      Chung WT, Lee SH, Kim JD, Park YS, Hwang B, Lee SY, Lee HY. Effect of mycelial culture broth of Ganoderma lucidum on the growth characteristics of human cell lines. J Biosci Bioeng. 2001;92(6):550-5. 

                    • A review of multiple studies found that cancer patients responded positively to reishi in addition to cancer treatment. “Four studies showed that patients in the G. lucidum group had relatively improved quality of life”, and the meta-analysis also showed that patients were likely to respond better to combined treatment with Reishi than to chemotherapy alone.

                      Jin X, Ruiz Beguerie J, Sze DM, Chan GC. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Apr 5;4(4):CD007731. 

                    • Triterpenes found in Reishi have been shown to aid the reduction of invasive breast cancer, mainly through its effect on NF-kB, as well as AP1, which is highly characteristic of breast cancer cells.

                      Potential Benefits of Ling Zhi or Reishi Mushroom Ganodermalucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) to Breast Cancer Patients. Chen AW, Seleen J. Int J Med Mushr. 2007;9(1):29-38. 
                    • A study showed that reishi promotes sleep through a gut microbiota-dependent and serotonin-associated pathway in mice.

                      Yao C, Wang Z, Jiang H, Yan R, Huang Q, Wang Y, Xie H, Zou Y, Yu Y, Lv L. Ganoderma lucidum promotes sleep through a gut microbiota-dependent and serotonin-involved pathway in mice. Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 1;11(1):13660. 

                    • Another study in mice showed that reishi intake increased total sleep time, non-REM sleep time, and reduced fatigue.

                      Chu QP, Wang LE, Cui XY, Fu HZ, Lin ZB, Lin SQ, Zhang YH. Extract of Ganoderma lucidum potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleep via a GABAergic mechanism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007 Apr;86(4):693-8. 
                    • One comprehensive review on mushrooms and gut health revealed that Reishi mushroom is one of the most efficient functional mushrooms in aiding gut microbiota, thanks to its pre-biotic compounds and presence of multiple polysaccharides.

                      Jayachandran, M.; Xiao, J.; Xu, B. A Critical Review on Health Promoting Benefits of Edible Mushrooms through Gut Microbiota. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1934. 

                    • Another critical review of the effects of Beta-glucans on the gut microbiota showed that Reishi is one of the most beneficial functional mushrooms for gut health, due to its anti-inflammatory compounds and immune modulating function.

                      Muthukumaran Jayachandran, Jiali Chen, Stephen Sum Man Chung, Baojun Xu, A critical review on the impacts of β-glucans on gut microbiota and human health. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 61, 2018, Pages 101-110, ISSN 0955-2863. 


                    Cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps Sinensis):

                    Cordyceps is mostly used for natural energy support, for example to improve athletic performance or to sustain healthy energy-levels throughout the day. It may also reduce asthma symptoms by loosening airways, and can improve circulation and lower blood pressure.


                    Cordyceps mushroom.
                    • Adults on cycle ergometers taking 4g of cordyceps per day for 3 weeks improved their Vo2 max, anaerobic threshold and aerobic capacity. In addition, their time before fatigue set in became longer. The results suggest that consistent chronic supplementation may drive even greater results.

                      Hirsch KR, Smith-Ryan AE, Roelofs EJ, Trexler ET, Mock MG. Cordyceps militaris Improves Tolerance to High-Intensity Exercise After Acute and Chronic Supplementation. J Diet Suppl. 2017 Jan 2;14(1):42-53. 

                    • In a similar study (double-blind and placebo-controlled), 20 healthy subjects aged 50-75 took cordyceps or placebo capsules 3 times per day for 12 weeks. Results showed that cordyceps intake improved athletic performance in older subjects, and may also contribute to general wellness.

                      Chen S, Li Z, Krochmal R, Abrazado M, Kim W, Cooper CB. Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 May;16(5):585-90. 

                    • A study where mice could swim longer without fatiguing because cordyceps lowers lactic acid levels in the blood. This reduced feelings of fatigue and enabled test subjects to keep swimming for longer.

                      Xu YF. Effect of Polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) on Physical Fatigue Induced by Forced Swimming. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016;18(12):1083-1092. 
                    • In a study of 120 people with moderate–severe asthma who were given capsules of cordyceps extracts for 3 months, results found that asthma symptoms, inflammatory profile and lung function improved.

                      Wang N, Li J, Huang X, Chen W, Chen Y. Herbal Medicine Cordyceps sinensis Improves Health-Related Quality of Life in Moderate-to-Severe Asthma. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:6134593. 
                    • A review of multiple animal and test tube studies found that cordycepin, a potent compound in Cordyceps, may help improve cardiovascular health and lower blood pressure. In addition, it may also improve both coronary and cerebral circulation.

                      Tuli HS, Sandhu SS, Sharma AK. Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin. 3 Biotech. 2014 Feb;4(1):1-12. 


                    Chaga (Inonotus Obluquus):

                    With its anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties, Chaga is a versatile medicinal mushroom most commonly consumed to support the immune system. Among other benefits, it may help reduce inflammation and infections.

                    Chaga mushroom.

                    • A study found that Chaga stimulates white blood cells by promoting the formation of beneficial cytokines. This helps the immune system fight off bacteria and viruses.

                      Ko SK, Jin M, Pyo MY. Inonotus obliquus extracts suppress antigen-specific IgE production through the modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1077-82. 

                    • A study made on bone marrow cells from immunosuppressed mice suggests that Chaga extracts can improve immunomodular effects almost to the same levels as in non-treated control, as early as after 8 days. Results suggest that chaga could enhance the immune system during chemotherapy, help reduce inflammation and fight bad bacteria.

                      Kim YR. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Mycobiology. 2005 Sep;33(3):158-62. 

                    • This review of current research discusses Chaga’s immunomodulating effects, which have been observed to result in anticancer activity, as well as suppression of autoimmune diseases and allergies.

                      Lull C, Wichers HJ, Savelkoul HF. Antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties of fungal metabolites. Mediators Inflamm. 2005 Jun 9;2005(2):63-80. 
                    • Several studies in animals evidence that chaga consumption may result in lowered blood sugar, which suggests it may help manage diabetes.

                      Wang C, Chen Z, Pan Y, Gao X, Chen H. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in type 2 diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Oct;108(Pt B):498-509. 

                      Sun JE, Ao ZH, Lu ZM, Xu HY, Zhang XM, Dou WF, Xu ZH. Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of dry matter of culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on normal and alloxan-diabetes mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jun 19;118(1):7-13. 

                      Wang J, Wang C, Li S, Li W, Yuan G, Pan Y, Chen H. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice and potential mechanism via PI3K-Akt signal pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Nov;95:1669-1677. 

                    • An eight-week study showed that chaga extracts could reduce the “bad” LDL cholesterol, as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides in rats with high cholesterol levels. Simultaneously, antioxidant levels increased.

                      Liang, Z. Zhang, W. Sun and Y. Wang, "Effect of the Inonotus Obliquus Polysaccharides on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress of Rats Fed High-Fat Diet In Vivo," 2009 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Tianjin, China, 2009, pp. 1-4.

                    • In addition, similar studies have found that chaga may also increase the “good” cholesterol, HDL.

                      Sun JE, Ao ZH, Lu ZM, Xu HY, Zhang XM, Dou WF, Xu ZH. Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of dry matter of culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on normal and alloxan-diabetes mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jun 19;118(1):7-13. 

                      Wang J, Wang C, Li S, Li W, Yuan G, Pan Y, Chen H. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice and potential mechanism via PI3K-Akt signal pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Nov;95:1669-1677. 
                    • In one study, they found that chaga reduces gut inflammation and activates the immune system, which suggests it may be a helpful immune booster, especially when used in conjunction with chemotherapy, as some trials have already proven.

                      Jayachandran, M.; Xiao, J.; Xu, B. A Critical Review on Health Promoting Benefits of Edible Mushrooms through Gut Microbiota. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1934. 

                    • One study suggests that the high antioxidant activity in chaga may reduce oxidative stress, which can otherwise lead to chronic liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

                      Hong, Ki Bae, Noh, Dong Ouk, Park, Yooheon, Suh, Hyung Joo. Hepatoprotective Activity of Water Extracts from Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, ”Inonotus obliquus” (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Liver Injury in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 17, Issue 11, 2015, pp. 1069-1076.,343363596ed9bda8,02c791752da8e789.html 


                    Turkey Tail (Trametes Versicolor):

                    Turkey Tail is mostly known for strengthening the immune system and its beneficial impact on gut health. It may help reduce inflammation and promotes the release of protective compounds, among other things.

                     Turkey tail mushroom.

                    • Studies have found that the polysaccharopeptides found in Turkey Tail may increase white blood cells that fight infections, certain bacteria, and promote immunity to toxins.

                      Lu H, Yang Y, Gad E, Inatsuka C, Wenner CA, Disis ML, Standish LJ. TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the antitumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Nov 1;17(21):6742-53. 

                      Sekhon BK, Sze DM, Chan WK, Fan K, Li GQ, Moore DE, Roubin RH. PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment. Food Chem. 2013 Jun 15;138(4):2201-9. 

                      • Another study showed that extracts of Turkey Tail activates the immune system and is particularly useful for fighting inflammation.

                        Benson KF, Stamets P, Davis R, Nally R, Taylor A, Slater S, Jensen GS. The mycelium of the Trametes versicolor (Turkey tail) mushroom and its fermented substrate each show potent and complementary immune activating properties in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019 Dec 2;19(1):342. 
                        • One study in mice with tumors found that daily intake of Turkey Tail extract reduced tumor sizes significantly.

                          Awadasseid A, Hou J, Gamallat Y, Xueqi S, Eugene KD, Musa Hago A, Bamba D, Meyiah A, Gift C, Xin Y. Purification, characterization, and antitumor activity of a novel glucan from the fruiting bodies of Coriolus Versicolor. PLoS One. 2017 Feb 8;12(2):e0171270. 

                          • A breast cancer patient took turkey tail extracts in conjunction with chemotherapy. The turkey tail helped the tumor to be isolated and thus more effectively targeted and treated by chemotherapy, while also supporting the immune system to reverse the immunosuppression of chemotherapy.

                            Stamets P. Trametes versicolor (Turkey Tail Mushrooms) and the Treatment of Breast Cancer. Glob Adv Health Med. 2012 Nov;1(5):20. 

                            • A test tube study found that human colon cancer cells were reduced, and that their spread was inhibited, as a result of the polysaccharides found in Turkey Tail.

                              Satoh Y, Goi T, Nakazawa T, Kimura Y, Hirono Y, Katayama K, Yamaguchi A. Polysaccharide K suppresses angiogenesis in colon cancer cells. Exp Ther Med. 2012 Sep;4(3):370-374. 

                              • A study with dogs found that the spread of cancer cells significantly slowed as a result of daily Turkey Tail extracts, improving survival times.

                                Brown DC, Reetz J. Single agent polysaccharopeptide delays metastases and improves survival in naturally occurring hemangiosarcoma. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:384301. 

                                • Most promising are the studies where Turkey Tail is used in combination with traditional treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy, where evidence suggest that Turkey Tail can significantly improve chance of survival and effective treatment.

                                  Eliza WL, Fai CK, Chung LP. Efficacy of Yun Zhi (Coriolus versicolor) on survival in cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2012 Jan;6(1):78-87. 

                                  Oba K, Teramukai S, Kobayashi M, Matsui T, Kodera Y, Sakamoto J. Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curative resections of gastric cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2007 Jun;56(6):905-11. 

                                  Torkelson CJ, Sweet E, Martzen MR, Sasagawa M, Wenner CA, Gay J, Putiri A, Standish LJ. Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Trametes versicolor in Women with Breast Cancer. ISRN Oncol. 2012;2012:251632. 
                                  • A small, 8-week study in humans suggested that daily intake of Turkey Tail extract can promote a healthy gut microbiome by aiding good bacteria and suppressing the growth of “bad” bacteria such as Shigella and E.Coli.

                                    Pallav K, Dowd SE, Villafuerte J, Yang X, Kabbani T, Hansen J, Dennis M, Leffler DA, Newburg DS, Kelly CP. Effects of polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor and amoxicillin on the gut microbiome of healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial. Gut Microbes. 2014 Jul 1;5(4):458-67. 

                                    • A test tube study with Turkey Tail extract found that it promoted the growth of healthy gut bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, while suppressing the growth of harmful bacteria. These healthy gut bacteria have been linked to improved digestion, lower risk of certain cancers, stronger immune system and more.

                                      Eliza WL, Fai CK, Chung LP. Efficacy of Yun Zhi (Coriolus versicolor) on survival in cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2012 Jan;6(1):78-87. 

                                      Shi LH, Balakrishnan K, Thiagarajah K, Mohd Ismail NI, Yin OS. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics. Trop Life Sci Res. 2016 Aug;27(2):73-90. 


                                    Maitake (Grifola frondosa):

                                    Maitake is rich in antioxidants and vitamins, and in addition to supporting the immune system, it contains compounds that may help fight tumors, lower cholesterol and combat diabetes type II.

                                    Maitake mushroom.

                                    • A mice study found that Maitake extracts may help to keep arteries healthy, since it lowers cholesterol levels while simultaneously increasing the fatty acids that provide energy.

                                      Mayumi Sato, Yoshihiko Tokuji, Shozo Yoneyama, Kyoko Fujii-Akiyama, Mikio Kinoshita, Hideyuki Chiji, Masao Ohnishi, Effect of Dietary Maitake (Grifola frondosa) Mushrooms on Plasma Cholesterol and Hepatic Gene Expression in Cholesterol-Fed Mice, Journal of Oleo Science. Vol. 62 (2013) Issue 12. 

                                    • In one study, Maitake helped regulate age-related conditions, such as elevated blood pressure, overactivity in RAS, increased inflammation and decreased insulin sensitivity, and even reversed some of the conditions to a better state than before the treatment.

                                      Preuss HG, Echard B, Bagchi D, Perricone NV. Maitake mushroom extracts ameliorate progressive hypertension and other chronic metabolic perturbations in aging female rats. Int J Med Sci. 2010 Jun 7;7(4):169-80. 
                                      • A study suggests that Turkey Tail may help regulate Diabetes Type II due to positive effects on glucose levels in the blood of diabetic rats.

                                        Chen YH, Lee CH, Hsu TH, Lo HC. Submerged-Culture Mycelia and Broth of the Maitake Medicinal Mushroom Grifola frondosa (Higher Basidiomycetes) Alleviate Type 2 Diabetes-Induced Alterations in Immunocytic Function. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(6):541-56. 
                                        • One study suggests that Maitake may be used to treat breast cancer, since it helps to activate cells that fight tumors while suppressing the growth of cancer cells.

                                          Eliana Noelia Alonso, Manuela Orozco, Alvaro Eloy Nieto, and Gabriela Andrea Balogh. Genes Related to Suppression of Malignant Phenotype Induced by Maitake D-Fraction in Breast Cancer Cells. Journal of Medicinal Food.Jul 2013.602-617. 

                                          • Another study shows that Maitake can help suppress cancer growths in mice, while increasing the amount of cells fighting the tumor in the body.

                                            Masuda Y, Inoue H, Ohta H, Miyake A, Konishi M, Nanba H. Oral administration of soluble β-glucans extracted from Grifola frondosa induces systemic antitumor immune response and decreases immunosuppression in tumor-bearing mice. Int J Cancer. 2013 Jul;133(1):108-19.


                                          Guide to Peak State's Mushroom Coffee: 

                                          Looking for coffee with one of the health benefits listed above? Here’s a quick guide to which Peak State coffees contain each functional mushroom. 

                                          Lion’s Mane

                                          Immunity Boost: Medium Roast | Steeped Coffee

                                          Brain Sustain: Light Roast | Dark Roast | Steeped Coffee

                                          Calm Descent: Decaf



                                          Immunity Boost: Medium Roast | Steeped Coffee

                                          Stress Less: Dark Roast



                                          Immunity Boost: Medium Roast | Steeped Coffee

                                          Brain Sustain: Light Roast | Dark Roast | Steeped Coffee

                                          Calm Descent: Decaf



                                          Immunity Boost: Medium Roast | Steeped Coffee

                                          Stress Less: Dark Roast


                                          Turkey Tail

                                          Immunity Boost: Medium Roast | Steeped Coffee


                                          Shop our full range of organic, functional coffee here.

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